Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are the most frequent congenital craniofacial defects and are usually associated with craniofacial defects and nose deformities that alter the facial aesthetic configuration. The aetiology of CLP is thought to bemultifactorial (genetic, teratogenic and/or environmental factors), 3 although there are no studies which have determined the exact causes that produce it. This chapter describes the nasal deformities associated with congenital clefting and outlines the timing and techniques used to correct these deformities.
In this review article, various preferences in breast plastic surgery particularly after breast cancer will be discussed in view of the diverse indications for the different construction procedures.The various conditions that necessitate the need for reconstruction are appraised, the important reconstructive procedures are discussed. The most important indications procedures discussed in this review include; Prophylactic subcutaneous mastectomy, Lumpectomy and Radiation, Modified Mastectomy with Axillary Sampling, Nipple reconstruction, and the contralateral breast. These procedures are discussed in view of plastic surgeon practice and patients acceptability in Saudi Arabia. Data from Saudi Arabia in particular was identified through searches of the EMBASE, and MEDLINE database, using the keywords: Saudi Arabia, breast plastic Surgery, breast reconstruction, autologous breast reconstruction, breast augmentation.
Facial rejuvenation surgery has evolved from simple excision and tightening to soft tissue repositioning and augmentation. It is important to keep in mind that the face per se is composed of both soft tissues and bony skeleton. Nonetheless, there has been a paucity of approaches that simultaneously address the bony or hard tissue aspects in addition to the soft tissues. A "pan-facial" approach to facial surgery encompassing both the bony and soft tissue components will therefore yield the most favourable outcomes.