Tobacco use is extensively seen worldwide. It contains chemical named nicotine which leads people addict to Tobacco. Nicotine highly releases the dopamine chemical which helps the body to decrease the stress of the body. Dip and chew tobacco products contains more nicotine than cigarettes. It also releases the drug adrenaline which immediately gives Pleasure and energy to the body. Open Access eBooks is inviting researchers to submit their book chapter for the publication in volume 1 of an eBook TOBACCO ADDICTION: EFFECT ON HUMAN HEALTH.
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In the 1980s, the hazard of smoking has been widely recognized by general public in western countries. While, during the same period, China had developed rapidly as the world's leading tobacco production and consumption country. However, due to the delay of smoking consumption peak comparing with developed countries, the smoking related research in China had lagged behind western developed countries for nearly 50 years and basic epidemiological information regarding to the health problems associated with smoking was lacking. Therefore, it was imperative to undertake nationwide research to depict the hazards related with smoking comprehensively and systematically, which was crucial for forming preventive public health policy as well as raising awareness of health risk caused by cigarette smoking among general population in China. However, it is almost impossible to achieve this goal in a short period by directly applying traditional epidemiological research designs, such as cohort design and case-control design, both of which are most frequently used in epidemiological etiological studies. In cohort studies, subjects need to be followed up for a period of time to observe the occurrence of the events of interest, which usually takes a long time for a cohort study to mature. While for case-control studies require control group to be an approximate random sample of base population, which is hardly to meet in large-scale population studies. Therefore, there was a call for methodological innovation, through which the impact of smoking on Chinese could be evaluated within relative short period with less resource consumption.
The precancerous lesion was defined by World Health Organization (WHO), in 1978 as a morphologically altered tissue associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer. Precancerous lesions of oral cavity include oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Plummer Vinson syndrome, erosive lichen planus, dyskeratosis congenita, chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, Cowden’s syndrome, discoid lupus erythromatosus, dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, and xeroderma pigmentosa . In 2005, WHO decided to use the term ‘Potentially Malignant Disorders (PMD)’ as it describes that the pathological condition may transform into cancer. Precancerous lesions that are identified PMD are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, palatal changes associated with reverse smoking, oral lichen planus, OSMF, and discoid lupus erythromatosus . Causative factors for PMDs include human papilloma virus (HPV), candida, tobacco, ‘gutkha’, areca nut, vitamins (such as, A, B, C, D, and E) deficiency and minerals (such as, iron, calcium, copper, zinc and magnesium etc) deficiency .
Tobacco is a plant called ‘nicotiana tabacum’, whose dried leaves are used to make different forms of tobacco . All forms of tobacco contain nicotine - the chemical responsible for addiction [2,3]. Although extremely lethal, tobacco is cultivated in many regions of the world and is legally available .
Tobacco products can be broadly classified into smoked and smokeless products. Smoked forms of tobacco are those substances which are burnt and the resultant smoke is inhaled or held in the mouth . While on the other hand, smokeless tobacco products are used either orally or nasally without burning the product . The different types of tobacco products have been listed below [4,5,6].