Vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes like Aedes aegypti, in particular Chikungunya fever, is quite alarming . Chikungunya fever was first described during an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952. In the last 50 years, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has spread beyond the African lands and has caused explosive outbreaks, which include millions of cases in the Indian Ocean, Asia and, most recently, in Europe and the Americas . The name Chikungunya comes from the Bantu language spoken by the Makonde tribe-an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique - as a descriptive term, which can be translated as the disease that bends up the joints due to arthralgia that can last for months [2,3]. The etiological agent of Chikungunya fever is CHIKV, an Alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family .
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arthropod borne virus transmitted by Aedes species of mosquitoes that causes major outbreak in more than 60 countries in Asia, Africa and more recently Europe and American continents. The re-emergence of chikungunya poses major public health burden worldwide, mostly affecting low and middle income countries. The outbreak is relatively uncommon; sporadic and affects all age groups. It is a febrile disease characterized with debilitating polyarthralgia lasting for weeks to months. Although chikungunya infection has caused millions of cases, still it is poorly documented without specific preventive and therapeutic interventions. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical significance of chikungunya virus, mosquito vector, prevention and control measures.
Understanding the insecticides susceptibility status of the commonly used insecticides for control of disease vectors is of paramount importance in setting up control agenda. In this chapter, the biological efficacy of commonly used insecticides (Acaricides) was evaluated under laboratory conditions against field collected populations of soft ticks (Ornithdoros moubata) from six regions of mainland Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility status of O. moubata and ensure safe use of these pesticides for effective control. Six regions (namely Iringa, Morogoro, Arusha, Manyara, Shinyanga and Dodoma) with high infestations of O. moubata were selected. Within each region collections were carried out in two districts which are highly infested with O. moubata. Ticks collected from the community houses were transported to laboratory for rearing and insecticides susceptibility bioassays. Effectiveness of these insecticides were determined by exposing batches of unfed 1st instar nymphs of O. moubata in five replicates on filter papers impregnated with serial dilutions of technical grade insecticides. The susceptibility status of eight field isolates of O. moubata was determined. The 24 and 48 hours mortality was higher and the insecticides were found to be effective.
Hematophagous arthropods pose a serious threat to human health because of their ability to transmit hundreds of disease carrying viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminthes to vertebrate hosts, particularly humans. Diseases transmitted to humans by an arthropod or another living organism (vector), is known as vector borne disease that accounts for 17% of the estimated global burden of all infectious diseases. Annually, more than 1 billion vector borne infections take place and more than 1 billion people die from such diseases.
Climate change is one of the most critical global challenge affecting all aspects of our life and is believed to be the result of increase in the emission of green house gases causing global warming. Recent events such as excessive rain fall, droughts, heat wave, cyclones and hurricanes emphatically demonstrated our vulnerability to climate change. The increase in temperature, melting glaciers, rising sea level, retreating ice caps, and abrupt weather pattern are the consequences of the changing climate, the impact of which may range from affecting agriculture, accelerated erosion of coastal zones, species extinction and the spread of infectious and vector borne diseases due to natural disasters to food scarcity and malnutrition. The impact may differ from one place to another and from developed countries to resource poor developing countries.
Since Nobel research of late 19th century by Laveran and Ross, now ample of data is available about malaria but no sign of its eradication. Today science is accelerating with an unforeseen pace resulting into a burst (an explosion) of data and analyses, still fall short to resolve the problem. What's the reason behind it? In our view the major issue behind failure is defining the problem. Here we discussed the various aspects of malaria required for malaria eradication.
1. Dr. Alberto Alberti
2. Dr. Luigi Falsone
3. Dr. Guido Faviav