Biotechnology is the use of living organisms, biological processes or systems to manufacture/develop different drugs or products to improve the quality of life. The science of biotechnology is divided into four categories: red, white, green & blue.
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The word “Epigenetics” describes inheritable changes in gene expression that are independent of alterations in DNA sequences. Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in biology and over the past 16 years, the epigenetic regulation of DNA-based processes has been intensely studied. Epigenome is essential for the regulation and in unraveling the stages of normal and abnormal cellular development, including the phases of growth, differentiation, senescence, aging and immortalization during carcinogenesis. The recent characterization of DNA methylome at single nucleotide resolution has allowed the mapping of epigenetic machinery: DNA methylation, post-translational histone and other protein modifications, nucleosome positioning and noncoding RNAs (specifically microRNA [miR] expression) which act in concert to exert their cellular effects. Recent advancements in cancer epigenetics has highlighted the extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer. Disruption of the epigenome can contribute to cancer via altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. The reversible nature of gene silencing by epigenetic modifications has facilitated the emergence of the promising field of epigenetic therapy. In contrast to conventional chemotherapy; several epigenetic drugs have been proven to prolong survival and to be less toxic. DNA methylation and histone modifications may serve as a potential targets for the development and implementation of new therapeutic approaches in the clinical settings. Many clinical trials are ongoing with novel classes of agents that target various components of the epigenetic machinery and have already made progress with the recent FDA approval of three epigenetic drugs for cancer treatment.
Magnesium (Mg) plays an important role in various cellular processes such as DNA repair and replication, transporting potassium and calcium ions and signaling transduction. Dietary source which are rich in Mg includes seeds, cocoa, nuts, green leafs and almonds. The daily dietary intake of Mg is frequently found to be below than the recommended in western country. Certainly it is recognized that Mg deficiency may lead to many disorders of the human being for example diabetes, cardiovascular disease and TB. Moreover, Mg deficit also leds to inflammation and amplifies the level of free radicals where it causes oxidative DNA damage and tumor formation. The presented book chapter provides a summary of low Mg impact on human health and development of various diseases.
An investigation was designed to comprehend and evaluate the vegetative response of rose cuttings to three cultivars and in four different rooting media. Experiment was conducted on three cultivars namely; Happiness, Avon and Kiss of Fire using four rooting media viz; soil (control), vermiculite, perlite and sand:soil:FYM (1:1:1 v/v). It was conducted as a factorial experiment on the basis of Completely Randomized Design with three replications. There were five budded cuttings in each replication. The findings revealed that cuttings of Rosa indica var. odorata budded with buds of cv. Happiness (V1) recorded maximum bud take percentage for all the four rooting media. Cultivar Happiness performed better than cv. Avon in terms of days for bud sprouting, diameter of primary and secondary branches, while, length of primary and secondary branches was better in cv. Avon. The highest number of roots (33.16) and longest root (13.84 cm) were recorded for Happiness + vermiculite. However, better survival percentage under field condition was recorded in Avon and Kiss of Fire than Happiness. Among the rooting media, vermiculite appeared to be superior due to its positive effect on root growth and development, followed by sand:soil:FYM (1:1:1 v/v), while perlite was least effective. During the investigation period the two factors, cultivars and rooting media interacted significantly with each other in most of the cases. In general, cv. Happiness and Avon performed better than Kiss of Fire. As far as rooting media is concerned, vermiculite is recommended as an appropriate rooting media for opti mum rooting and growth of rose cuttings.
The relative rarity of stem cells in embryonic or circulating bloods of the adult has human prompted the scientific community to search for markers that are biologically unique to stem cells and could be used for identification of cell type. Stem cell markers can be either on the cell surface or part of an intracellular signalling pathway associated with cell proliferation, differentiation or cell-cell interaction. Further a combination of markers facilitates identifying a particular cell type with consistency. Keeping this in view, attempts were made to develop antibodies against Germ cell marker Fragilis and embryonic stem cell marker Nanog. Antibodies were developed against synthetic peptides made from carefully chosen epitopic region from sequences available in NCBI. Antibodies were validated by Western Blot using various cell lines and tissues. Immuno histochemical staining of adult rat testis with anti-Nanog showed the presence of pluripotent stem cell factor in the tails of the spermatozoa and suggests that NANOG expression was markedly up regulated in the gonocytes shows stem cell potential in adult testis. This confirms that adult rat testis has a population of stem cells that can be act as biomarkers.
Since time immemorial, mankind has been developing crops to suit their needs by selective breeding. Cultivar development within a species has been done by selecting alleles present a population. Sexual recombination allows alleleic recombination during meiosis resulting in plants which can be selected with novel traits. The primary gene pool allows for crosses to be easily made, the hybrids will be fertile and chromosome pairing is normal, thus allowing Mendelian segregation of traits. The biological species is divided into two categories, (i) subspecies composed of lines used for agronomic use and (ii) subspecies, which contains weedy or wild relatives of subspecies A. The secondary gene pool refers to all biological species, which cross with a different species. Although mating and gene transfer are possible, there will be hybrid sterility or aberrations in chromosome pairing. Hybrids may be weak and may not reach maturity. The recovery of a desired phenotype will not be possible or might be difficult even when traits are crossed back. In the tertiary gene pool, although crosses are possible with the crop of interest, hybrids are lethal or completely sterile.