Dementia is the name which deals with group of long term disorders of brain. People suffering from dementia may lose their memory power, ability of thinking and they may also change their personalities resulting in reducing the person's ability to perform the daily activities. Open Access eBooks is inviting researchers to submit their book chapter for the publication in volume 1 of an eBook DEMENTIA: ADVANCES AND TREATMENT.
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Due to the increased number of elderly people worldwide, nowadays one of the major medical and socio-economic challenges is to search strategies to combat the consequences of aging process, reducing the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia. Dementia is a clinical syndrome of chronic and progressive symptoms characterized by multiple cognitive deficits associated with aging, which includes impairment in memory and in other cognitive functions to the extent that it interferes with daily function. In the last years oxidative stress and inflammation have been pointed out as the leading causes of brain aging and neurodegeneration. Therefore,an approach for preventing some brain age-related diseases, such as dementia, may be the consumption or administration of polyphenols,which are natural compounds present in edible plants. Due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, polyphenolshave been suggested such as a beneficial strategy against the development of brain aging and neurodegeneration. This chapter summarizes the latest discoveries regarding how polyphenols exert positive effects combating the biochemical mechanisms that originate aging and dementia,such as oxidative stress, inflammation and the aggregation of abnormal folding proteins, among others.
Dementia is increasingly becoming a critical issue in countries with ageing populations. In some, the rate is relatively lower as the age of the 'elderly' population is relatively young, the mortality rate among dementia patients is high and there may be an underestimation of the extent of the problem due to the difficulty of the diagnosis of dementia. The most frequently observed neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimers' Dementia (AD) are night-time behavior and apathy as measured by the neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). These symptoms interfere with the quality of life (QoL) for both patients and caregivers and may be an important factor in the decision-making on how to manage an elderly person's disease.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health in terms of "Quality of Life (QOL) as an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns" . The basic concept of QOL includes categories such as physical function and mental health. However, actual health-related QOL is a complex problem since most elderly people have several chronic diseases and decreased physical functions with aging.
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur containing metabolite produced by de-methylation of methionine in one-carbon metabolism of pathway where methionine is converted to S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) through activation of ATP. SAM works as a major methyl donor in the cell and after donating the methyl group it is converted to S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) which in turn hydrolysed to homocysteine. In humans, plasma Hcy level is regulated by its remethylation to methionine and by transulfuration to cystein. There are numerous clinical and epidemiological data showing the direct correlation of abnormal Hcy levels with generation of different types of diseases like cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system disorders and others.
In this chapter the description, Prevalence, Incidence,types and Symptoms of Dementia are discussed. Symptoms of AD, risk factors, different stages of AD and Diagnosis of AD are given in detail for the purpose of better understanding of Disease.
According to Shaji K S et al., Dementia is a syndrome usually chronic, characterized by a progressive, global deterioration in intellect including memory, learning, orientation, language, comprehension and judgement due to disease of the brain . Alzheimer's disease International (ADI) conducted a systematic review on global prevalence worldwide in 2009 and published the data in the World Alzheimer Report. In that it is estimated that there will be 36 million people with Dementia in 2010, nearly doubling every 20 years and it is anticipated the number to reach 66 million by 2030 and 115 million by 2050 .