Biotechnology is the use of living organisms, biological processes or systems to manufacture/develop different drugs or products to improve the quality of life. The science of biotechnology is divided into four categories: red, white, green & blue.
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Biopolymer is a term commonly used for polymers which are synthesized by living organisms. Biopolymers originate from natural sources and are biologically renewable, biodegradable and biocompatible. Chitin and chitosan are the biopolymers that have received much research interests due to their numerous potential applications in agriculture, food industry, biomedicine, paper making and textile industry. Chitin is a polysaccharide, made of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units connected by β (1→4) linkage. When the acetyl-D-glucosamine units in chitin lose acetyl groups, the molecule is called chitosan.
HPLC is a versatile tool for separation of phenolics from the plant systems. Many studies are conducted for separation of phenolics using HPLC tool. This chapter summarized the work done in this area using various solvents, plant parts and assay condition in tabulated form.
In the pre-genomic era, microbes have been used for hundreds of years due to their applications in products such as bread, beer and wine. The use of these microbes in biotechnology is only possible when scientists know the mystery about this tiny creature. In the post-genomic era, thousands of whole genome sequences along with advanced analysis tools, techniques and technologies have been developed for the exploration of hidden potentials in these microorganisms. In this chapter, we summarize the timeline and advancements in microbial genomics made in the post-genomic era. Microbial evolution through 16S rRNA, bacterial genome sequencing boost by Next-generation and third generation sequencing technologies has also been discussed. Comparative genomics approaches to identify industrial microbes, pathogenic, non-pathogenic, rare and uncultivated microbes have also been described. Pangenome analyses for exploring the genome diversity and plasticity. Finally, reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics approaches have been discussed in the context of its potentials to identify putative vaccine and drug targets.