The study of brain and spinal cord tumors known as Neuro Oncology. Cancers which form in brain and spinal cord are also known as central nervous system cancers. Most common brain and spinal cord tumors are:
Pineal Parenchymal Tumors
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Osteochondroma (OC) is the most common benign tumor of the bones, and it remains the most common precursor for secondary chondrosarcoma, which often occurs in the long bones metaphyseal areas. Rarely, it is also found in the spine. This tumor comprises a cartilage capped bone projection and is observed in both solitary and multiple forms. In many cases, the lesion can be definitively diagnosed according to radiological characteristics, but the rarity of these lesions in the spine, gradual onset of symptoms, and the frequent lack of observation of lesions in plain radiography may delay the diagnosis or cause misdiagnosis. These lesions are benign and do not risk the patient life; however, they rarely may be found to be a malignant degeneration that transformed into chondrosarcoma.
Brain metastases originate from tissues outside the central nervous system (CNS) and spread secondarily to the brain. They are 10 times more common than primary brain tumors, and account for more than half of all clinically diagnosed brain tumors in adults. The incidence of brain metastases seems to be rising as the control of systemic cancer has improved and patient survival has subsequently increased. This chapter looks at the epidemiology of these tumors and their prognostic assessment, with a focus on strategies for treating both the tumors and their associated symptoms through surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, and future treatment modalities.