The branch of science which deals with the study of microscopic organisms is known as Microbiology. Researchers have suggested that microorganism can be useful in treatment of cancer and can be used as vaccine in some diseased conditions. Microorganisms are essential tools in biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology.
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Microsporidiosis is an emerging and opportunistic infection coupled with a broad range of clinical syndromes in humans. Microsporidian parasite infectivity has been identified in a wider range of human populations that includes persons with HIV infection, travellers, children, organ transplant recipients, and the elderly. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with chronic diarrhoea, anorexia, and lethargy revealed the presence of numerous refractile bodies resembling microsporidian spores. Questions still exist about whether Microsporidia infections remain unrelenting in immune-competent individuals, re-activate during conditions of immune compromise, or may be transmitted to others at risk, such as during pregnancy or through organ donation. Therefore, this book chapter highlights the research on microsporidiosis in humans.
Nanoparticles are particles that have size of 100 nm or less with one or more dimensions has gained larger attention due to their characteristic and unique properties apart from wide range of applications over their other counterparts. The physical, chemical, biological and hybrid ways of synthesis of nanoparticles is dependent on the requirement and type of nanoparticles however for clinical and biological application the chemical methods have proven to be toxic to the living system therefore better and safer alternatives are chosen like biological methods of production of nanoparticles. In biological methods the use of microorganism for production of nanoparticles is gaining lots of attention for being economical, rapid and safer alternative to physical and chemical methods. The wide range of microorganism and their potential to adapt in different environment gives them an edge over other ways. The microbial production of nanoparticles is the part of microbial growth that involves two processes: reduction process and precipitation process. The latter is further achieved by either nucleation or crystal growth. The entire production is controlled by controlling the growth parameter of the microbes. Thus the process is simpler and economical but is slow and time consuming as compared to chemical ways, however the quality and quantity of the nanoparticle is far better in biological methods than in chemical methods.