Neurons cannot regenerate or replace themselves in the body so this condition leads to neurodegenerative diseases. They are mainly caused due to loss of structure or function of nervous systems. This condition may lead to degeneration or death of nerve cells. Ataxia and Dementia Problems may occur. Open Access eBooks is inviting researchers to submit their book chapter for the publication in volume 1 of an eBook NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT.
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and complex neurological disorder. The detailed description of PD was firstly made almost two centuries ago, but the conceptualisation of the disease is yet to be evolved. Basically, PD is a neurodegenerative disease in which there is an early prominent death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc).The pars compacta is a portion of the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain. It is formed by dopaminergic neurons and located medial to pars reticulata. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons in this region . In humans, the nerve cell bodies of the pars compacta are coloured black by the pigment neuromelanin. The degree of pigmentation increases with age. This pigmentation is visible as a distinctive black stripe in brain sections and is the origin of the name given to this volume of the brain. Thus, dopamine deficiency within the basal ganglia leads to a movement disorder characterised by classical parkinsonian motor symptoms. PD is also linked with numerous non-motor symptoms, some of which head the motor dysfunction by more than a decade. The stronghold of PD management is suggestive treatment with drugs that increase dopamine concentrations or directly stimulate dopamine receptors.