Understanding the insecticides susceptibility status of the commonly used insecticides for control of disease vectors is of paramount importance in setting up control agenda. In this chapter, the biological efficacy ofcommonly used insecticides (Acaricides) was evaluated under laboratory conditions against field collected populations of soft ticks (Ornithdoros moubata) from six regions of mainland Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility status of O. moubata and ensure safe use of these pesticides for effective control. Six regions (namely Iringa, Morogoro, Arusha, Manyara, Shinyanga and Dodoma) with high infestations of O. moubata were selected. Within each region collections were carried out in two districts which are highly infested with O. moubata. Ticks collected from the community houses were transported to laboratory for rearing and insecticides susceptibility bioassays. Effectiveness of these insecticides were determined by exposing batches of unfed 1st instar nymphs of O. moubata in five replicates on filter papers impregnated with serial dilutions of technical grade insecticides. The susceptibility status of eight field isolates of O. moubata was determined. The 24 and 48 hours mortality was higher and the insecticides were found to be effective.
The intestinal microbiota composition has a great impact on physiology and health, since commensal bacteria are crucial to maintain homeostasis and immune regulation of the gut. Consequently, disturbances of this microbiota, a process known as dysbiosis, have severe implications for the host health such as the rise of many gastrointestinal (GI) problems; including inflammatory disorders like the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), mucositis, as well as colorectal cancer (CRC). The consumption of probiotics with beneficial effects is a promising tool to help treating such disorders. Indeed, they modulate diverse biological mechanisms involved in GI homeostasis and have been commonly used to reduce such disorders. In this chapter, we present the molecular mechanisms triggered by probiotic bacteria to modulate the gut physiology during gastrointestinal disorder and the importance of the gastrointestinal stresses tolerance as a limiting factors for probiotic application. Moreover, we focus on the emergence of functional probiotic foods, which can act as excellent vehicles, by enhancing stress tolerance and providing a protective matrix towards digestive stresses.
Since past couple of decades, enzymes have been consistently used as an efficient industrial tool to synthesize a variety of products. Industries are highly dependent upon some basic enzymes viz Amylase, Carboxymethyl cellulase and proteases.Such pioneering enzymes find their applications in a wide range of industries, including pharmaceuticals, food and beverages industry and textile industry. Amylase were initially reported from the buds of tuber by Bailey .
Cognitive impairment in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a prevalent symptom with detrimental consequences on many aspects of patients` functioning and health status, as well as it may affectSantalum albumthe course of respiratory treatment. COPD pathology seems to be accountable for the high prevalence of cognitive impairment in those patients. It includes several determinants of cognitive impairment which present a potential independent and overlapping impact on cognitive function in COPD. Hypoxia and systemic effects of COPD are common risk factors for the development of cognitive deficits. Early detection of cognitive impairment in COPD patients is crucial in order to prevent, delay or even treat the progress of cognitive decline. Pulmonary rehabilitation as comprehensive therapeutic intervention can provide opportunities to attenuate cognitive decline in COPD.
Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide public health problem across all age groups including infants, children, adults, and elderly. Very few foods naturally contain or are fortified with vitamin D. The major source of vitamin Dis from sunlight exposure. Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin is synthesized from 7-dehydocholesterol present in the skin of humans by the action of ultraviolet B radiation (290 – 315 nm). The major cause of vitamin D deficiency is lack of adequate sunlight exposure. In utero and during childhood, vitamin D deficiency can cause growth retardation and skeletal deformities and may increase the risk of hip fracture later in life. Vitamin D deficiency in adults can precipitate or exacerbate osteopenia and osteoporosis, cause pain producing osteomalacia and muscle weakness, and increase the risk of fall and fracture. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of common cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular mortality. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) is the reliable marker of vitamin D status and a level below 20 ng/ml defines deficiency. However, an optimal level above 30 ng/ml is required to maximize the bone health and non-skeletal benefits of vitamin D. A sensible sun exposure for 5 – 15 min between 1000 and 1500 hours in the spring, summer and autumn and supplementation of atleast 400 IU, 600 IU and 800 IU of vitamin D/day among infants and children, adults and elderly respectively shall guarantee vitamin D sufficiency in at risk population.