Vascular system is also known as Circulatory system/ Cardiovascular System. Cardiovascular System contains heart, blood and blood vessels which help in blood circulation throughout the body. Most common abnormalities of Vascular System are: High Blood Pressure, Stroke, Cardiac Arrest, Arrhythmia, Congenital heart disease, Coronary artery disease, Congestive heart failure.
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Arterial remodelling is a major risk factor for a variety of age-related diseases and represents a potential target for therapeutic development. During ageing, the structural, mechanical and functional changes of arteries predispose individuals to the development of diseases related to vascular abnormalities in vital organs such as the brain, heart, eye and kidney. For example, aortic stiffness increases nonlinearly with advancing age – a few percent prior to 50 years of age but over 70% after 70 years of age. The elevated stiffness in large elastic arteries leads to increased transmission of high pressure to downstream smaller blood vessels, in turn affecting the microcirculation and end-organ functions. Meanwhile, the augmented remodelling of small arteries accelerates central arterial stiffening. This chapter is to provide an overview of age-associated changes in the arterial wall and their contributions to both central and peripheral vascular abnormalities associated with ageing. Therapeutics that specially target the different aspects of arterial remodelling are expected to be more effective than the traditional medications, particularly for the treatment and management of vascular ageing-related diseases.
Curcumin is major principal curcuminoid found in turmeric and in various medicinal plants. It has numerous numbers of pharmacological actions like anti-oxidant, cell cycle regulation; ions channel modulators and vascular integrity. The present study is designed for the evaluation of curcumin phytosome (CP) in streptozotocin induced vascular dementia (VaD) in Danio rerio. The vascular dementia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 350 mg/kg). The pre-treatment of curcumin CP (20 and 40 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered for 28 consecutive days. The reference control i.e., insulin (10 mM/kg) and donepezil (10 mg/kg) was also administered for 28 consecutive days. The sign of VaD i.e., learning and memory levels were evaluated with different behavioural tests like light & dark chamber test; partition preference test; three (horizontal) compartment tests; and T-maze test. In addition, the STZ induced biochemical changes such as glucose & homocysteine levels in plasma; and acetylcholinesterase activity, lipid peroxidation & reduced glutathione levels in brain samples of zebrafish were assessed. The CP found to possess the attenuating effect in STZ induced VaD along with alterations of biochemical changes. This effect is similar to that of reference control i.e., donepezil pre-treated group. Therefore, this CP can be used as future natural medicine for various neurovascular disorders like VaD due to its potential anti-hyperglycemic, reduction of homocysteine, anti-lipid peroxidative, anti-oxidative and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.