Vascular system is also known as Circulatory system/ Cardiovascular System. Cardiovascular System contains heart, blood and blood vessels which help in blood circulation throughout the body. Most common abnormalities of Vascular System are: High Blood Pressure, Stroke, Cardiac Arrest, Arrhythmia, Congenital heart disease, Coronary artery disease, Congestive heart failure.
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Arterial remodelling is a major risk factor for a variety of age-related diseases and represents a potential target for therapeutic development. During ageing, the structural, mechanical and functional changes of arteries predispose individuals to the development of diseases related to vascular abnormalities in vital organs such as the brain, heart, eye and kidney. For example, aortic stiffness increases nonlinearly with advancing age – a few percent prior to 50 years of age but over 70% after 70 years of age. The elevated stiffness in large elastic arteries leads to increased transmission of high pressure to downstream smaller blood vessels, in turn affecting the microcirculation and end-organ functions. Meanwhile, the augmented remodelling of small arteries accelerates central arterial stiffening. This chapter is to provide an overview of age-associated changes in the arterial wall and their contributions to both central and peripheral vascular abnormalities associated with ageing. Therapeutics that specially target the different aspects of arterial remodelling are expected to be more effective than the traditional medications, particularly for the treatment and management of vascular ageing-related diseases.